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Safety and potential efficacy of cyclooxygenase‐2 inhibitors in coronavirus disease 2019
Sean Wei Xiang Ong
Wilnard Yeong Tze Tan
Yi-Hao Chan
Siew-Wai Fong
Laurent Renia
Yee-Sin Leo
David Chien Lye
Barnaby Edward Young
Novel Coronavirus
Acceso Abierto
COX-2 inhibitors
Objectives While the safety of non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs in COVID‐19 has been questioned, they may be beneficial given the hyper‐inflammatory immune response associated with severe disease. We aimed to assess the safety and potential efficacy of cyclooxygenase‐2 (COX‐2) selective inhibitors in high‐risk patients. Methods Retrospective study of patients with COVID‐19 pneumonia and aged ≥ 50 years who were admitted to hospital. Adverse outcomes analysed included supplemental oxygen use, intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation and mortality, with the primary endpoint a composite of any of these. Plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were measured in a subset. Results Twenty‐two of 168 (13.1%) in the cohort received COX‐2 inhibitors [median duration 3 days, interquartile range (IQR) 3–4.25]. Median age was 61 (IQR 55–67.75), 44.6% were female, and 72.6% had at least one comorbidity. A lower proportion of patients receiving COX‐2 inhibitors met the primary endpoint: 4 (18.2%) versus 57 (39.0%), P = 0.062. This difference was less pronounced after adjusting for baseline difference in age, gender and comorbidities in a multivariate logistic regression model [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.45, 95% CI 0.14–1.46]. The level of interleukin‐6 declined after treatment in five of six (83.3%) treatment group patients [compared to 15 of 28 (53.6%) in the control group] with a greater reduction in absolute IL‐6 levels (P‐value = 0.025). Conclusion Treatment with COX‐2 inhibitors was not associated with an increase in adverse outcomes. Its potential for therapeutic use as an immune modulator warrants further evaluation in a large randomised controlled trial.
Clinical & Translational Immunology
Epidemia COVID-19
Versión publicada
publishedVersion - Versión publicada
Appears in Collections:Artículos científicos

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