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Early Spread of SARS-Cov-2 in the Icelandic Population
Jona Saemundsdottir
Asgeir Sigurdsson
Patrick Sulem
Gudmundur L Norddahl
Pall Melsted
Kari Stefansson
Olafur T Magnusson
Frosti Jonsson
Kamilla S Josefsdottir
Thordur Kristjansson
Droplaug N Magnusdottir
Louise le Roux
Gudrun Sigmundsdottir
Gardar Sveinbjornsson
Kristin E Sveinsdottir
Hakon Jonsson
Maney Sveinsdottir
Emil A Thorarensen
Bjarni Thorbjornsson
Arthur Love
Gisli Masson
Ingileif Jonsdottir
Alma Moller
Thorolfur Gudnason
Karl G Kristinsson
Unnur Thorsteinsdottir
Aslaug Jonasdottir
Brynjar O Jensson
Hilma Holm
Daniel F Gudbjartsson
Berglind Eiriksdottir
Run Fridriksdottir
Elisabet E Gardarsdottir
Gudmundur Georgsson
Olafia S Gretarsdottir
Kjartan R Gudmundsson
Thora R Gunnarsdottir
Arnaldur Gylfason
Arna B Agustsdottir
Agnar Helgason
Novel Coronavirus
Acceso Abierto
BACKGROUND Limited data exist on how SARS-CoV-2 enters and spreads in the general population. METHODS We used two strategies for SARS-CoV-2 testing: targeted testing of high-risk individuals (n=4,551) and a population screening (n=5,502). We sequenced SARS-CoV-2 from 340 individuals. RESULTS On March 22 2020, 528 had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in the targeted testing (11.6%) and 50 in the population screening (0.9%); approximately 0.2% of the Icelandic population. Large fractions of positives had travelled outside Iceland (38.4% and 34.0%). Fewer under 10 years old were positive than those older: 2.8% vs. 12.3% for targeted testing (P=1.6e-9) and 0.0% vs. 1.0% for population screening (P=0.031). Fewer females were positive in the targeted testing than males (9.5% vs. 14.6%, P=6.8e-9). SARS-CoV-2 came from eight clades, seven A clades and one B clade. The clade composition differed between the testing groups and changed with time. In the early targeted testing, 65.0% of clades were A2a1 and A2a2 derived from Italian and Austrian skiing areas, but in the later targeted testing went down to 30.6% and were overtaken by A1a and A2a, the most common clades in the population screening. CONCLUSION SARS-CoV-2 has spread widely in Iceland outside of the high-risk groups. Several strains cause these infections and their relative contribution changed rapidly. Children and females are less vulnerable than adults and males. To contain the pandemic we must increase the scope of the testing. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest. ### Funding Statement No external funding. ### Author Declarations All relevant ethical guidelines have been followed; any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained and details of the IRB/oversight body are included in the manuscript. Yes All necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived. Yes I understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance). Yes I have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines and uploaded the relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material as supplementary files, if applicable. Yes All sequenced virus genomes have been deposited into GISAID.
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
Appears in Collections:Artículos científicos

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